A look at just a few of the important discoveries we have made in the past 135 years:

  • Contributed to a breakthrough study showing the likely biological link between Zika virus and microcephaly, a birth defect linked to abnormally small head size and stunted brain development in newborns (2016)
  • 领导了 新视野号 mission to Pluto, a decade-long journey exploring the outer reaches of our solar system for the first time (2015)
  • Determined that massive, 成熟的, fully formed galaxies existed more than 8 billion years ago, far earlier than expected, necessitating a re-examination of the dominant theory of galactic evolution (2004)
  • 派了一个 spacecraft to Mercury to orbit the planet and see, for the first time, the majority of Mercury’s surface (2004)
  • 降落的 first spacecraft on an asteroid (2001)
  • Isolated and cultivated human embryonic stem cells, the undifferentiated cell from which an entire human being eventually develops (1998)
  • Helped develop the first effective treatment for sickle cell anemia (1995)
  • 发现 that pennies’ worth of vitamin A supplements administered to Indonesian children as part of a blindness prevention program were accompanied by a dramatic drop in infant death rates, leading to similar vitamin treatments for thousands of children in developing countries (1983–86)
  • Identified high rates of infant deaths in motor vehicle accidents, leading to the passage of child safety restraint laws throughout the United States (1979)
  • 开发了 first successful treatment to desensitize people against bee stings (1975)
  • 发明了 the first implantable, rechargeable pacemaker for cardiac disorders (1972)
  • 花了 first color photograph of the entire earth from space (1967)
  • 发现 restriction enzymes, the so-called “biochemical scissors,” which gave birth to the entire new field of genetic engineering (1960s); the discoverers were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978 for their achievement
  • Conducted the first major, large-scale reSearch study of conditions of inequality in American schools, which resulted in the landmark report Equality of 教育al Opportunity (1960)
  • 发明了 cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the lifesaving first-aid technique, thanks to a chance observation during work on the defibrillating machine (also invented at Johns Hopkins) that weight placed on the chest increases blood pressure (1958)
  • 显示, retrolental fibroplasia, which causes blindness in pre成熟的 infants, was related to high concentrations of oxygen used in babies’ incubators (1954)
  • 证实了 authenticity of the Dead Sea Scrolls, speeding acceptance as genuine these earliest biblical manuscripts (1948)
  • 发现 Dramamine’s effectiveness in alleviating motion sickness (1948)
  • Immunized chimpanzees with inactivated vaccines, essential to the development of the first widely used 脊髓灰质炎疫苗 and a major step toward the prevention of poliomyelitis in human beings (1947–52)
  • 花了 first images of Earth’s curvature, from a V-2 rocket (1946)
  • 开发了 first supersonic 冲压喷气发动机 (1944)
  • 开发了 “blue baby” operation to correct congenital heart defects, ushering in a new era in open heart surgery (1944)
  • Published the first modern edition of the “The Epic of Gilgamesh,” making available to the world the most significant extra-biblical work of ancient Near Eastern literature (1891)
  • Introduced the 橡胶手套 for use during surgery (1889)
  • 发现 the sweetening agent 糖精 (1879)
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